*Pcd Formula Industrial Forum - eMastercam.com JIS Flanges 2 kg/cm2 Blind Slip-On Pipe inch mm Pipe D do t C Holes ψh 18 450 457.2 605 460 22 555 16 23 20 500 508.0 655 511 22 605 20 23*

METHOD OF CALCULATING PCD CM Trailer Parts New Zealand. 04/12/2014 · Depending on your application, it might be easier to determine what pressure rating you need and along with your flange diameter 335 mm which is around 13 inches, look for a a flange rating chart. This will tell you the size of bolts and number of bolts for that flange of that particular rating., PCD Calculator. To calculate your PCD measurement, measure the distance between the two adjacent studs. Enter this measurement in the box below, specify the number of studs, and click "Submit". Your PCD measurement will be displayed..

Flange Weight Chart, flange weight calculator, flange weight calculation, wnrf flange weight calculator, flanges weight calculator, tongue and groove flange, blind flange weight calculator, weld neck flange weight calculator Leading Manufacturer & Exporter of Industrial Ansi Pn Flanges India., Industrial Ansi Pn Flanges We Export : uae, saudi arabia, qatar, oman, malaysia, sinagapore flange weight calculator, wnrf flange weight calculator, stainless steel flange weight calculator, weld neck flange weight calculator, stainless steel flange weight chart, blind flange chart, large diameter flange weights, pipe flange weight chart, pn16 flange weight chart, pipe flange weight chart pdf, flange screw weight chart, carbon steel flange weight chart, socket weld flange weight

How Calculate PCD (Pitch Circle Diameter) of a Flange? The PCD of a flange is one of the most critical dimensions. Now we will try to make easy to find the PCD (Pitch Circle Diameter) of a flange in our daily work. PCD (Pitch Circle Diameter) is the diameter of a circle that goes through each of the bolt holes. These flange tables include ANSI flanges, PN flanges and the old British Table C, D, E, F, H, J flanges. Flange tables identify the type of flange you have.

Since some folks cannot run the Windows executable version, particularly on mobile devices, here is an online version of the PCD calculator. To use the Gcode output you will have to copy and paste that section to a text file and save it for your Gcode processor to use. note that NCplot v1.2 will not draw G91 relative motion correctly Units: How Calculate PCD (Pitch Circle Diameter) of a Flange? The PCD of a flange is one of the most critical dimensions. Now we will try to make easy to find the PCD (Pitch Circle Diameter) of a flange in our daily work. PCD (Pitch Circle Diameter) is the diameter of a circle that goes through each of the bolt holes.

Calculate Flange (General Example) Description The following describes the calculation method for in situ flange survey. Also see AutoFix Site Survey for Flange Capture. Laser Flange Capture and Calculate Flange (Bolt Minimum Distance Example) For a successful flange survey the following must be determined: Flange type rating and size. 4 STUD PCD To measure PCD on a 4 stud wheel, measure from To measure PCD on a 5 stud wheel, measure from the centre of one stud to the centre of the next stud, then calculate PCD using the chart below: ‘X’ IN INCHES ‘X’ IN MM PCD COMMON WHEELS 2.351 59.715 4” AP5, AP6 Valient

Calculator. The flange calculator includes a database of 600; API, ANSI, BS and MSS standard pipeline and piping flanges ranging from ½ inch to 48 inch and an independent calculation facility according to ASME VIII. In addition to the standard flange types and designs, Flanges also allows you to modify the standard (database)... PCD of a flange can be calculated from 4 holes or Stud. Let us learn how to calculate PCD of 4, 5 and 6 hole flange. Formula forPitch Circle Diameter of a Flange: Step 1: Consider a 100mm flange, with 6 holes. Find the PCD of the flange.

01/06/2013 · The esiest way to find the PCD is : Find circumference of PCD then divide it by numbers of holes on PCD. For Example :-(508 X 3.14) / 30 = S where S = center to center linear dist. (not curve wise) between r holes. By this formula u can easily find the degree also. 12/09/2019 · This is typically a wheel hub on a vehicle, chain ring on a bicycle or flange on a pipe. The diameter of this circle is known as the bolt circle diameter (BCD) or pitch circle diameter (PCD). Typically BCD is quoted for bash guards covering the chain wheels on bikes and you can calculate it by measuring the distance between the fixing holes of the chain ring.

16/10/2019 · This application can help you to calculate 1. The P.C.D. (pitch circle diameter) for given number of studs, wheel bolts or wheel rim holes 2. Chord length for given P.C.D. and number of studs, wheel bolts or wheel rim holes 3. Number of studs for given P.C.D. and chord length 4. Angle between two studs / wheel bolts / wheel rim holes 5. 22/12/2017 · Draw everything, flange inner, outer & PCD on a cad program to scale, (any decent program will do a pcd from a centre point) print out the drawing, glue (Pritt stick) the diagram to the flange, centre punch for the holes. Remove paper. Check. eLuSiVeMiTe and spencer 427 like this.

Contact LDS Vacuum with any questions: Phone (407)862-4643 via Fax (407)862-8723 or info@ldsvacuum.com. LDS Vacuum Products is a 100% woman owned company and For example, a flange that’s rated a PN40, 40K or 600 lbs will be able to withstand more pressure and excessive heat more so than a flange that has a lower pressure rating. Often times, a combination of a size and pressure rating may have the same dimensions as the same size flange with a …

Flange tables covering 15mm (1/2") to 600mm (24") flanges. Since some folks cannot run the Windows executable version, particularly on mobile devices, here is an online version of the PCD calculator. To use the Gcode output you will have to copy and paste that section to a text file and save it for your Gcode processor to use. note that NCplot v1.2 will not draw G91 relative motion correctly Units:, method of calculating pcd - 5 stud To measure PCD on a 5 stud wheel, measure from the centre of one stud to the centre of the next stud, then calculate PCD using the chart below. 044_-_method_of_calculating_pcd.pdf.

How you find the pcd of flange Answers. The easiest way calculate the PCD is as follows: Identify the size of rim or tyre size. (This helps to narrow down the likely PCD sizes) Measure the distance ‘S’ between two adjacent studs from the centre of each hole. Using the calculator enter the number of studs/holes & ‘S’ and press ‘calculate’., How to Measure the Diameter of a Flange February 10, 2014 February 10, 2014 Marissa Leave a comment Before you scoff at the notion of someone trying to tell you how to measure the diameter of a flange inside your piping system, take a moment to consider what’s at stake — the operation of your incredibly expensive equipment and the safety of your crew..

www.sbstrailers.com. To obtain the chordal distance T the following formula is used: T = D x C where:D = diameter of the pitch circle C = constant as given in tables. PITCH CIRCLE CHORDAL DISTANCE CALCULATION. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chain-ladder_method Flange PCD “PCD” – Pitch Circle Diameter. Diameter described between centre of bolt holes. Pressure Rating ‘PN’ stands for Pressure Nominale and prefixes the pressure rating, e.g. a PN16 flange is designed to operate up to 16 bar. Typical ratings include.

ANSI B16.5. Flange PCD Dimensions Dimensions for pitch circle diameter (PCD) of flange bolts, and the bolt sizes for the most common pipe sizes and flange ratings are shown in the tables below. - All bolt holes are 1/8" larger than diameter of bolts. See our page … The easiest way calculate the PCD is as follows: Identify the size of rim or tyre size. (This helps to narrow down the likely PCD sizes) Measure the distance ‘S’ between two adjacent studs from the centre of each hole. Using the calculator enter the number of studs/holes & ‘S’ and press ‘calculate’.

Flange 60.5 63.5 67.0 67.0 68.5 70.0 Face 1073 1124 1194 1245 1295 1359 Diameter Diameter Bolts Bolts It Holes CLASS 150 CLASS 300 Flange 1238 1289 1346 1403 1454 1511 KIKAI CO.. LTD. Note: How to converted inches to millimeters (the conversion factor is 1 inch =25.4mm Outside Diameter of Flange Diameter Of Raised Face Diameter Of Bolt Circle Calculator. The flange calculator includes a database of 600; API, ANSI, BS and MSS standard pipeline and piping flanges ranging from ½ inch to 48 inch and an independent calculation facility according to ASME VIII. In addition to the standard flange types and designs, Flanges also allows you to modify the standard (database)...

31/07/2015 · Finding a replacement flange is not as a straightforward process as one would expect. This video will illustrate how to properly measure a flange to find its... 16/10/2019 · This application can help you to calculate 1. The P.C.D. (pitch circle diameter) for given number of studs, wheel bolts or wheel rim holes 2. Chord length for given P.C.D. and number of studs, wheel bolts or wheel rim holes 3. Number of studs for given P.C.D. and chord length 4. Angle between two studs / wheel bolts / wheel rim holes 5.

Please help promote this free service - Tell a Friend about this site! Create PDF to print diagrams on this page. Help & Settings Printing Help (new window) Copy all diagrams on this page to bottom of page - Make multiple copies to Print or Compare. Contact LDS Vacuum with any questions: Phone (407)862-4643 via Fax (407)862-8723 or info@ldsvacuum.com. LDS Vacuum Products is a 100% woman owned company and

JIS Flanges 2 kg/cm2 Blind Slip-On Pipe inch mm Pipe D do t C Holes ψh 18 450 457.2 605 460 22 555 16 23 20 500 508.0 655 511 22 605 20 23 S = Measurement of Flange in Millimeters Example: Consider a 100mm flange, with 8 holes. Find the PCD of the flange. Given: Measurement of Flange S = 100mm Number of Holes = 8 To Find: Pitch Circle Diameter (PCD) Solution: Apply the values in the formula, PCD for 8 number of holes = S / 0.38268 PCD for 8 number of holes = 100 / 0.38268

Please help promote this free service - Tell a Friend about this site! Create PDF to print diagrams on this page. Help & Settings Printing Help (new window) Copy all diagrams on this page to bottom of page - Make multiple copies to Print or Compare. PRESSURE PIPING THICKNESS AND FLANGE RATING CALCULATION This case study demonstrates the use of a script and a Generic 4D chart to enable Flownex® to calculate standards-compliant wall thicknesses and flange ratings of piping used in high pressure flow applications.

Set the drilling depth. This is a negative number in the chosen units. PCD conforms to the *right hand rule* which means that negative Z values drive the tool into the work. Retract height. This is a positive number representing the height to which the tool is retracted above the … For example, a flange that’s rated a PN40, 40K or 600 lbs will be able to withstand more pressure and excessive heat more so than a flange that has a lower pressure rating. Often times, a combination of a size and pressure rating may have the same dimensions as the same size flange with a …

03/04/2011 · Fabrication_Calculation - authorSTREAM Presentation. Slide 40: 40 WELD METAL WEIGHT CALCULATION For long seam weld weight = Cross section area x Length of seam x density = 14.9cm² x 100cm x 7.86gm/cm³ = 11711.4gms = 11.712kgs for 1 mtr long seam For circ. seam = Cross section area x Mean circ. x Density For Circ. seam having OD = 4000 mm and Thk. = 50 mm Weld Weight = 14.9c m² … TLV Engineering Calculator. The TLV Engineering Calculator offers a great deal of information and technical support to Contractors and End Users on many aspects of pipeline flow and control. There is information and pipe sizing details for steam, condense recovery, water, compressed air and gas. In addition, this provides information that can

Flange Weight Chart, flange weight calculator, flange weight calculation, wnrf flange weight calculator, flanges weight calculator, tongue and groove flange, blind flange weight calculator, weld neck flange weight calculator Leading Manufacturer & Exporter of Industrial Ansi Pn Flanges India., Industrial Ansi Pn Flanges We Export : uae, saudi arabia, qatar, oman, malaysia, sinagapore How Calculate PCD (Pitch Circle Diameter) of a Flange? The PCD of a flange is one of the most critical dimensions. Now we will try to make easy to find the PCD (Pitch Circle Diameter) of a flange in our daily work. PCD (Pitch Circle Diameter) is the diameter of a circle that goes through each of the bolt holes.

Appendix A Flange Information - Delvin. To obtain the chordal distance T the following formula is used: T = D x C where:D = diameter of the pitch circle C = constant as given in tables. PITCH CIRCLE CHORDAL DISTANCE CALCULATION., 4 STUD PCD To measure PCD on a 4 stud wheel, measure from To measure PCD on a 5 stud wheel, measure from the centre of one stud to the centre of the next stud, then calculate PCD using the chart below: ‘X’ IN INCHES ‘X’ IN MM PCD COMMON WHEELS 2.351 59.715 4” AP5, AP6 Valient.

How to Measure a Gasket PAR Group. How Calculate PCD (Pitch Circle Diameter) of a Flange? The PCD of a flange is one of the most critical dimensions. Now we will try to make easy to find the PCD (Pitch Circle Diameter) of a flange in our daily work. PCD (Pitch Circle Diameter) is the diameter of a circle that goes through each of the bolt holes., Flange Weight Chart, flange weight calculator, flange weight calculation, wnrf flange weight calculator, flanges weight calculator, tongue and groove flange, blind flange weight calculator, weld neck flange weight calculator Leading Manufacturer & Exporter of Industrial Ansi Pn Flanges India., Industrial Ansi Pn Flanges We Export : uae, saudi arabia, qatar, oman, malaysia, sinagapore.

12/09/2019 · This is typically a wheel hub on a vehicle, chain ring on a bicycle or flange on a pipe. The diameter of this circle is known as the bolt circle diameter (BCD) or pitch circle diameter (PCD). Typically BCD is quoted for bash guards covering the chain wheels on bikes and you can calculate it by measuring the distance between the fixing holes of the chain ring. Flange PCD “PCD” – Pitch Circle Diameter. Diameter described between centre of bolt holes. Pressure Rating ‘PN’ stands for Pressure Nominale and prefixes the pressure rating, e.g. a PN16 flange is designed to operate up to 16 bar. Typical ratings include

16/10/2019 · This application can help you to calculate 1. The P.C.D. (pitch circle diameter) for given number of studs, wheel bolts or wheel rim holes 2. Chord length for given P.C.D. and number of studs, wheel bolts or wheel rim holes 3. Number of studs for given P.C.D. and chord length 4. Angle between two studs / wheel bolts / wheel rim holes 5. For example, a flange that’s rated a PN40, 40K or 600 lbs will be able to withstand more pressure and excessive heat more so than a flange that has a lower pressure rating. Often times, a combination of a size and pressure rating may have the same dimensions as the same size flange with a …

JIS Flanges 2 kg/cm2 Blind Slip-On Pipe inch mm Pipe D do t C Holes ψh 18 450 457.2 605 460 22 555 16 23 20 500 508.0 655 511 22 605 20 23 Please help promote this free service - Tell a Friend about this site! Create PDF to print diagrams on this page. Help & Settings Printing Help (new window) Copy all diagrams on this page to bottom of page - Make multiple copies to Print or Compare.

method of calculating pcd - 5 stud To measure PCD on a 5 stud wheel, measure from the centre of one stud to the centre of the next stud, then calculate PCD using the chart below. 044_-_method_of_calculating_pcd.pdf Since some folks cannot run the Windows executable version, particularly on mobile devices, here is an online version of the PCD calculator. To use the Gcode output you will have to copy and paste that section to a text file and save it for your Gcode processor to use. note that NCplot v1.2 will not draw G91 relative motion correctly Units:

04/12/2014 · Depending on your application, it might be easier to determine what pressure rating you need and along with your flange diameter 335 mm which is around 13 inches, look for a a flange rating chart. This will tell you the size of bolts and number of bolts for that flange of that particular rating. 4 STUD PCD To measure PCD on a 4 stud wheel, measure from To measure PCD on a 5 stud wheel, measure from the centre of one stud to the centre of the next stud, then calculate PCD using the chart below: ‘X’ IN INCHES ‘X’ IN MM PCD COMMON WHEELS 2.351 59.715 4” AP5, AP6 Valient

Contact LDS Vacuum with any questions: Phone (407)862-4643 via Fax (407)862-8723 or info@ldsvacuum.com. LDS Vacuum Products is a 100% woman owned company and The easiest way calculate the PCD is as follows: Identify the size of rim or tyre size. (This helps to narrow down the likely PCD sizes) Measure the distance ‘S’ between two adjacent studs from the centre of each hole. Using the calculator enter the number of studs/holes & ‘S’ and press ‘calculate’.

method of calculating pcd - 5 stud To measure PCD on a 5 stud wheel, measure from the centre of one stud to the centre of the next stud, then calculate PCD using the chart below. 044_-_method_of_calculating_pcd.pdf PRESSURE PIPING THICKNESS AND FLANGE RATING CALCULATION This case study demonstrates the use of a script and a Generic 4D chart to enable Flownex® to calculate standards-compliant wall thicknesses and flange ratings of piping used in high pressure flow applications.

For example, a flange that’s rated a PN40, 40K or 600 lbs will be able to withstand more pressure and excessive heat more so than a flange that has a lower pressure rating. Often times, a combination of a size and pressure rating may have the same dimensions as the same size flange with a … 09/12/2007 · What is the pcd when measuring flanges.? Follow . 5 answers 5. Put the mounting holes on that circle. The diameter of the circle is the PCD - pitch centre diameter. If there are only 4 holes then it's the diagonal measurement between 2 holes across the centre. It actually stands for Pitch circle diameter. when looking at the holes in a

In this handy guide, you will find out how to measure many different types of industrial gaskets. 12/09/2019 · This is typically a wheel hub on a vehicle, chain ring on a bicycle or flange on a pipe. The diameter of this circle is known as the bolt circle diameter (BCD) or pitch circle diameter (PCD). Typically BCD is quoted for bash guards covering the chain wheels on bikes and you can calculate it by measuring the distance between the fixing holes of the chain ring.

Flange comparison Guide James J. Doherty Ltd.. PCD CALCULATORS. Use these calculators to find the PCD (pitch circle diameter) of a series of holes if you have a very large PCD or an odd number of holes (where you cannot measure over opposing holes). Two calculators are provided, the first if you can insert pins into the holes and the second if you can measure the holes directly., method of calculating pcd - 5 stud To measure PCD on a 5 stud wheel, measure from the centre of one stud to the centre of the next stud, then calculate PCD using the chart below. 044_-_method_of_calculating_pcd.pdf.

Guide to Properly Measuring Flanges World Wide Metric Blog. PCD (Pitch Circle Diameter) is the diameter of a circle that goes through each of the bolt holes. REALLY HANDY TIP. Sometimes it’s hard to measure the PCD of a butterfly valve or a flange that’s installed in pipework. As accurately as you can, measure two adjacent holes (see photo) and calculate the PCD. 4 holes: multiply by 1.414, ANSI B16.5. Flange PCD Dimensions Dimensions for pitch circle diameter (PCD) of flange bolts, and the bolt sizes for the most common pipe sizes and flange ratings are shown in the tables below. - All bolt holes are 1/8" larger than diameter of bolts. See our page ….

Pcd Formula Industrial Forum - eMastercam.com. PCD Calculator. To calculate your PCD measurement, measure the distance between the two adjacent studs. Enter this measurement in the box below, specify the number of studs, and click "Submit". Your PCD measurement will be displayed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chain-ladder_method 16/10/2019 · This application can help you to calculate 1. The P.C.D. (pitch circle diameter) for given number of studs, wheel bolts or wheel rim holes 2. Chord length for given P.C.D. and number of studs, wheel bolts or wheel rim holes 3. Number of studs for given P.C.D. and chord length 4. Angle between two studs / wheel bolts / wheel rim holes 5..

JIS Flanges 2 kg/cm2 Blind Slip-On Pipe inch mm Pipe D do t C Holes ψh 18 450 457.2 605 460 22 555 16 23 20 500 508.0 655 511 22 605 20 23 S = Measurement of Flange in Millimeters Example: Consider a 100mm flange, with 8 holes. Find the PCD of the flange. Given: Measurement of Flange S = 100mm Number of Holes = 8 To Find: Pitch Circle Diameter (PCD) Solution: Apply the values in the formula, PCD for 8 number of holes = S / 0.38268 PCD for 8 number of holes = 100 / 0.38268

PCD of a flange can be calculated from 4 holes or Stud. Let us learn how to calculate PCD of 4, 5 and 6 hole flange. Formula forPitch Circle Diameter of a Flange: Step 1: Consider a 100mm flange, with 6 holes. Find the PCD of the flange. Set the drilling depth. This is a negative number in the chosen units. PCD conforms to the *right hand rule* which means that negative Z values drive the tool into the work. Retract height. This is a positive number representing the height to which the tool is retracted above the …

studs. To calculate a 4 stud simply measure the distance between studs across the diaganal. For 5 stud use the calculation below. 4 STUD Measure the distance between studs across the line X to the stud centres. Do not measure from stud to stud. PCD 4 STUD 5 STUD Measure across line X stud to stud and multiply by 1.7012 to get the pcs of a 5 stud wheel. method of calculating pcd - 5 stud To measure PCD on a 5 stud wheel, measure from the centre of one stud to the centre of the next stud, then calculate PCD using the chart below. 044_-_method_of_calculating_pcd.pdf

How Calculate PCD (Pitch Circle Diameter) of a Flange? The PCD of a flange is one of the most critical dimensions. Now we will try to make easy to find the PCD (Pitch Circle Diameter) of a flange in our daily work. PCD (Pitch Circle Diameter) is the diameter of a circle that goes through each of the bolt holes. How Calculate PCD (Pitch Circle Diameter) of a Flange? The PCD of a flange is one of the most critical dimensions. Now we will try to make easy to find the PCD (Pitch Circle Diameter) of a flange in our daily work. PCD (Pitch Circle Diameter) is the diameter of a circle that goes through each of the bolt holes.

01/06/2013 · The esiest way to find the PCD is : Find circumference of PCD then divide it by numbers of holes on PCD. For Example :-(508 X 3.14) / 30 = S where S = center to center linear dist. (not curve wise) between r holes. By this formula u can easily find the degree also. 31/07/2015 · Finding a replacement flange is not as a straightforward process as one would expect. This video will illustrate how to properly measure a flange to find its...

flange weight calculator, wnrf flange weight calculator, stainless steel flange weight calculator, weld neck flange weight calculator, stainless steel flange weight chart, blind flange chart, large diameter flange weights, pipe flange weight chart, pn16 flange weight chart, pipe flange weight chart pdf, flange screw weight chart, carbon steel flange weight chart, socket weld flange weight PRESSURE PIPING THICKNESS AND FLANGE RATING CALCULATION This case study demonstrates the use of a script and a Generic 4D chart to enable Flownex® to calculate standards-compliant wall thicknesses and flange ratings of piping used in high pressure flow applications.

These flange tables include ANSI flanges, PN flanges and the old British Table C, D, E, F, H, J flanges. Flange tables identify the type of flange you have. JIS Flanges 2 kg/cm2 Blind Slip-On Pipe inch mm Pipe D do t C Holes ψh 18 450 457.2 605 460 22 555 16 23 20 500 508.0 655 511 22 605 20 23

Flange 60.5 63.5 67.0 67.0 68.5 70.0 Face 1073 1124 1194 1245 1295 1359 Diameter Diameter Bolts Bolts It Holes CLASS 150 CLASS 300 Flange 1238 1289 1346 1403 1454 1511 KIKAI CO.. LTD. Note: How to converted inches to millimeters (the conversion factor is 1 inch =25.4mm Outside Diameter of Flange Diameter Of Raised Face Diameter Of Bolt Circle Flange 60.5 63.5 67.0 67.0 68.5 70.0 Face 1073 1124 1194 1245 1295 1359 Diameter Diameter Bolts Bolts It Holes CLASS 150 CLASS 300 Flange 1238 1289 1346 1403 1454 1511 KIKAI CO.. LTD. Note: How to converted inches to millimeters (the conversion factor is 1 inch =25.4mm Outside Diameter of Flange Diameter Of Raised Face Diameter Of Bolt Circle

Calculate Flange (General Example) Description The following describes the calculation method for in situ flange survey. Also see AutoFix Site Survey for Flange Capture. Laser Flange Capture and Calculate Flange (Bolt Minimum Distance Example) For a successful flange survey the following must be determined: Flange type rating and size. 22/12/2017 · Draw everything, flange inner, outer & PCD on a cad program to scale, (any decent program will do a pcd from a centre point) print out the drawing, glue (Pritt stick) the diagram to the flange, centre punch for the holes. Remove paper. Check. eLuSiVeMiTe and spencer 427 like this.

studs. To calculate a 4 stud simply measure the distance between studs across the diaganal. For 5 stud use the calculation below. 4 STUD Measure the distance between studs across the line X to the stud centres. Do not measure from stud to stud. PCD 4 STUD 5 STUD Measure across line X stud to stud and multiply by 1.7012 to get the pcs of a 5 stud wheel. How to Measure the Diameter of a Flange February 10, 2014 February 10, 2014 Marissa Leave a comment Before you scoff at the notion of someone trying to tell you how to measure the diameter of a flange inside your piping system, take a moment to consider what’s at stake — the operation of your incredibly expensive equipment and the safety of your crew.